Usmail [Pedro Juan Soto, Francisco M. Vazquez, Jose A. Pelaez] on Amazon. com. *FREE* Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. In USMAÍL, Pedro Juan Soto gives us a masterful description of life on the small Puerto Rican Island of Vieques during the s, 40s and 50s as seen through. seen in the early works of Puerto Rican writer Pedro Juan Soto. Critics of This content downloaded from on Tue, 09 Jul UTC.
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They were the ones who developed nationalist cultural ideas in its formal and imaginary sense in accordance to the European modern way of thinking which gave latter great meaning to the Puerto Rican advancement in history. However, it should be pointed out how with this particular creative rhythm, literary discourse responded with more or less ironic dissidence to the oppressive colonial power of the Spanish government in the Island.
In this colonial context, the liberal press was under continual colonial surveillance. From this point, a somewhat defiant literary reaction would take shape in response to the colonial enforcement, but in an oblique and simulated way.
This was beyond the repressive context established by the official institutions with all sorts of punishments and vigilant structures and official agencies. The canonical Literature that we recognize today is in general the one that became the enemy of the colonial regime. Everything said in the poem should be interpreted considering the dissembling irony involved. After the journalistic development in the first four decades of the nineteenth century, some criollo writers, mainly poets, exposed the experiences and the will in finding styles of how they felt as liberal islanders and every time placed themselves more and more in a Caribbean colonial context.
By , some liberal actions of individuals and voices of desire for freedom, and also liberal independent newspapers, had emerged and continued their difficult but enthusiastic cultural responses along the nineteenth century.
Some literary collaborations, of course, would be anonymous. Their educated followers and admirers were the ones capable of articulating the base and support of the particular world vision of a criollo culture and its customs. The economical base developed by the hacendados gave meaning to the social structure, which had a powerful folkloric identity of African, Indian and mainly southern Spanish Andalusian and Canarian ancestry.
Under this context, criollo colonial writers looked for a definition of their cultural and political identity in a literary response in an autonomous fashion. Lets not forget there is a social class problem within the development of Puerto Rican culture.
The typical Puerto Rican is a mulatto, and the rich and those times the dominating native tended to be white and racist There are some bourgeoisie discourses during this time critics have considered very reactionary because of their classist distance from popular culture. These were mostly foreigners not interested in anything close to liberal, national or autonomous ideologies or literary expressions.
This was unlike other Latin American countries that had been liberated themselves from Spain since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Literature, in that sense, would become a refuge for a sector of young educated generation of artists and cultural thinkers. Their desire for liberation was refrained and ambiguous in its social concreteness and in the praxis it could reach because they were not backed by a bourgeois class with independent objective and national interests people with money.
By the s, young writers had to be very cautious denouncing the colonial power, and they felt identified with the workers of the haciendas as a political icon. According to our modern literature and cultural critics, this is why writers had to develop very peculiar discourse practices of ironic and indirect —laconic simulations— ways of expressing themselves.
Nevertheless, lettered men and artists unknowingly continued creating a national mentality as a copy of European romantic expectations. Language works beyond individual mentalities and capabilities.
These two mentalities, the liberal and the radical, will characterize literary ideological tendencies, the first being the most noticeable. Although, the radicals have been praised by the canon, in general, as the best writers.
The Puerto Rican canonical tradition tends to be radical. On the other hand, if we follow today's post-colonial  ideas, we can argue how the feeling of patriotic and national identity comes out as a conceptual imitation copy of the way the European colonizer is viewed. In that sense, being a liberal was full of imperial contradictions and objective ambiguities as part of their times and context.
In general, Puerto Rican idealists and radical politicians and ideologues desired to do away with their role as subordinate, and in reality they desired to occupy the official structure governing them as I mentioned this will be discussed later, and should be best understood of part of our present post-colonial ideas and theories.
The identification of the hacendados and the intellectuals, with the peasants, could be seen as idealist something which is seen different from today's postcolonial mentality. The traditional historian and literary critic of the last half of the twentieth century will not see it this way.
He or she will admire a harmonious achievement of national identity by foundational writers in the ideal arcade and imaginary hacienda.
Usually the traditional critic will not see the contradictions the dialectic thought in history. Su proceso en el tiempo have privileged and justified the ideological mentality and actions of the anticolonial struggle. However, they did not emphatically denounce the important aspects of the injustices towards the vulnerable workers, black people and women in a systematic and significant way. By the end of the twentieth century, nevertheless, we are beginning to denounce the contradictions and arbitrariness of the literary discourse of the nineteenth century and its hidden prejudices in evaluating the popular expressions and the way of interpreting culture.
Attention is being given to the negative way women were portrayed, along with racial and class prejudices, and also to what can be considered hidden gay abjections. The anti-colonial traditional critics will not take into account conscious epistemological and hermeneutical effects that the post-colonial will denounce later during the beginning of the twenty first century.
This is important to keep it in mind for the future interpretations, but the one done already by the scholars should be valued as "objectively" as possible. Let's not forget interpretations have always a subjective perspective. Keeping with the reasons mentioned above, which are important for us today, my purpose in this essay is to look more deeply and critically into the fundamental cultural and ideological conceptions employed by traditional canonical criticism.
This is because this canonical discourse does not question the national ideals in class, gender or racial meanings. This is why we should be careful with the European point of view that we have internalized along the two centuries and which we have not yet discussed properly. Many contemporary critics do not take gender and racial prejudices into serious consideration.
It is necessary to be cautious because some intellectuals of the nineteenth century, like Alejandro Tapia y Rivera, nevertheless, were somewhat conscious of the situation and took it into account in their cultural discourse in its deep structure. It has not been until the end of the twentieth century that literary criticism has altered the demands of the canonical patriarchal discourse and initiated a new critical approach like the one I am suggesting here.
We need to have in mind a literature that claims a vast sense of liberty, which recognizes how that liberty responds to ideal constructs of traditional and canonical groups aspiring to dominate the colony for their interests and not necessarily for reaching justice and a sense of dignity for the oppressed people especially for blacks and women. We have to keep an ironic distance from the colonialized as well as the colonizer as a dominant or subordinate subject in the Island.
The poem situates itself in the national subordinate imaginary, with a sense of territorial possession that can wants surreptitiously to de-construct criticise the arrogant imperial power. In reality the poem is claiming the festivity of the the Other the Colonial when the desire is to leave underneath a shadow of denial and refusal.
Of course this is achieved by utilizing a subtle ideological distance and irony. This establishes the anxious desire for a national imaginary yet unrealistic and too ideal. By an important generational issue regarding identity appears, and was valued until recently. However, by understanding some criollo lettered men of the times we see how they were incapable of accomplishing a genuine sentiment of defense substantially as what was viewed as the ideal of criollo puertorricaness.
The Cancionero de Borinquen followes this desires of presenting their constructions of national proudness. The first text of is composed by a group of students residing in Barcelona who, animated by the desire to respond to the conservatism of the initial Aguinaldo, gives particular relevance to the importance of the popular criollo identity.
They also wanted to express their love towards the motherland and demonstrate a desire for a common destiny. With this insistence in definig identity they demonstrate the first national signs of a modern teleology and a sense of a common destiny of a people-nation. Some liberal authorities were very helpful in supporting Alonso in his effort, and the book finally was very welcomed in the Island.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, literary criticism has followed the cultural Puerto Rican aspirations and the socio-cultural and national projects since its begginings. Both works of art show a profound sense of conflict and pessimism regarding the present achievements and the future of the imaginary nation Puerto Ricans did not achieved their independence efforts. The Romantic idealism of happiness turnes into pessimism as the second half of the century develops. It also contains eight rimes in which Alonso transcribes the spoken language of country people and their festive traditions.
In general, the book contains the world vision of the criollo the natives from the Island and the hacienda social class and bourgeoisie values. In it, he also follows the desire of exalting the poor and very subaltern jibaro as a subject capable of being educated to undertake work in the national hacienda the black race is not taken in consideration yet as a symbol of cultural importance in this book .
The image of the jibaro in the book is that of the working subject that follows the ways of the patriarchal hacienda regarding been an obedient worker and passive subject.
The book in general tends to be very festive in its rimes and very liberal and critical in its essays, reason why is been preised by its time and the tradition. It is a classic romantic book with some tendency towards idealist realism. But when everything is ready, he is denied to participate in the celebration because of his poor origins and background.
Upon consulting the priest on this matter, he is given to understand how he should be patient and quietly work hard to become rich and obtain the hand of his beloved. In this way, Paciencia can aspire to be accepted in his prejudiced society. In the historical field, the Grito de Lares and the abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico represent capital events in the strife taken by the most radical patriots in trying to reach the national independence and the petitioning of a more just and free society.
This was in accordance with the most advanced societal ideas of the times.